Available courses

Applied Physics includes the study of a diversified topics related to the world around us. It aims to give an understanding of this world both by observation and by prediction of the way in which objects behave. Concrete knowledge of physical laws, analysis and applications in various fields of engineering and technology are given prominence in this course content.

Learning Outcome

  • Identify the use of S.I. system of measurement with accuracy and how it is used in engineering 
  • Represent physical quantities as scalars and vectors, applying the physical laws and concepts of linear and circular motion in everyday life.
  • Solve difficult problems (walking of man, horse and cart problem, flying of bird/ aircraft, etc.)
  • Analyse and design banking of roads/railway tracks and apply conservation of momentum principle to Explain rocket propulsion, recoil of gun etc. • Derive work, power and energy relationship and solve problems about work and power.
  • Define work, energy and power and their units. and describe conservation of energy and its applications 
  • Understand the concept of rotational motion of a rigid body and its applications 
  • Apply the physical laws and concepts of gravity, its variation with longitude and latitude and its uses in space satellite etc. .
  • Understand the concept of elasticity, surface tension, pressure and the laws governing movement of fluids. 
  • Express physical work in term of heat and temperature; Measure temperature in various processes on different scales (Celsius, Kelvin, Fahrenheit etc.) 
  • Distinguish between conduction, convection and radiation, identify the different methods for reducing heat losses 
  • Understand the laws of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle and their applications.

Communication Skill Parts of Speech Writing Skills Reading Skills Vocabulary

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SKILLS: Defining the Term Communication since communication happens around us all the time, the process is often taken for granted. A large amount of time is spent communicating hence there is need to make sure that ideas and information are put in a way that everyone involved can understand. Thinking about what to say, working out the best way of saying it, finding the right words, making sure the other person understands and understanding anything he/she says in reply are all vital stages in communication. This can therefore lead us to define communication as giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or to express emotions. This broad definition ludes body-language, skills of speaking and writing. It also outlines the objectives of communication and emphasizes listening as an important aspect of communication.

 Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behavior. In communication process, a sender (encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver(decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information.

Soft Skills-II is a subject taught to  B Tech I Year students in Second Sem. It is in continuation to Soft Skills-I, taught in First Sem. The subject deals with the skills required by the professionals once they enter a job. To begin with, Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing, the syllabus covers topics such as Conversation and Social skills, Motivation Skills, Work-Place Skills, and Critical Thinking.

The present unit deals with Work-Place Skills like stress management, resilience, tolerance, and self-belief, teamwork and communication, positive thinking, and controlling the mind.

Applied Mathematics-II is specially designed for the first year Diploma engineering students of the BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION UTTAR PRADESH  . The book provides a detailed coverage of all the topics taught in Applied Mathematics - II offered in the second semester.

This course is based on Engineering Mathematics. There are  many topics of Engineering Mathematics in different volumes of Engineering Mathematics. Most of the topics are based on application of Engineering Mathematics. Application of Engineering Mathematics is very important and interesting. 

This course is specifically designed for syllabus of Engineering Mathematics for the B.Tech. first year and Second year students of A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Uttar Pradesh, India. 

Course is based on AKTUstudents,affiliated by AKTU,UP,India.

Course Objectives:-

CO 1 Understand the structure and functions of OS

CO 2 Learn about Processes, Threads and Scheduling algorithms.

CO 3 Understand the principles of concurrency and Deadlocks

CO 4 Learn various memory management scheme

CO 5 Study I/O management and File systems.

Data Compression (KCS-064) 

Course Outcome 

 At the end of course , the student will be able to 

1 Describe the evolution and fundamental concepts of Data Compression and Coding Techniques. 

2 Apply and compare different static coding techniques (Huffman & Arithmetic coding) for text compression.

3 Apply and compare different dynamic coding techniques (Dictionary Technique) for text compression.

4 Evaluate the performance of predictive coding technique for Image Compression.

5 Apply and compare different Quantization Techniques for Image Compression.

Web Technology (KCS-602) 

Course Outcome 

Bloom’s Knowledge Level (KL) At the end of course , the student will be able to-

 1 Explain web development Strategies and Protocols governing Web. 

2 Develop Java programs for window/web-based applications.

3 Design web pages using HTML, XML, CSS and JavaScript. 

4 Creation of client-server environment using socket programming

5 Building enterprise level applications and manipulate web databases using JDBC

6 Design interactive web applications using Servlets and JSP.

Course Objective

The students will be able to:

  • To understand the basic concepts of IoT, followed by major components, its layer architecture, and how IoT is impacting the Industry in various forms along with major applications.
  • To make students aware of basic concepts of cloud computing, its benefits, and different applications along with insights of major service providers.
  • To understand the basic concepts of Blockchain and its underlying technologies with its implementation as cryptocurrencies.
  • To understand the concept of Additive Manufacturing, its applications in various fields, and the basic concepts of drones, their assembly, and government regulations involved.
  • To introduce students to the upcoming technology and to develop the required skills for practical applications.

A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the network nodes. The interconnections between nodes are formed from a broad spectrum of telecommunication network technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies.

CO 1-Identify project planning objectives, along with various cost/effort estimation models

CO 2-Organize & schedule project activities to compute critical path for risk analysis

CO 3-Monitor and control project activities.

CO 4-Formulate testing objectives and test plan to ensure good software quality under SEI-CMM.

CO 5-Configure changes and manage risks using project management tools

The Android operating system is changing our lives in so many ways and also enabled enterprises to develop into big names in the IT business. It has the biggest database of users around the world and the numbers are only increasing. With the boom of mobile devices, the android app market has grown majorly, with the addition of new and innovative apps regularly.

C++ is a very popular language for performance-critical applications that rely on speed and efficient memory management. It’s used in a wide range of industries including software and game development, VR, robotics, and scientific computing.

This is an upcoming technology. It is based on object oriented approach and is user friendly. It supports various languages such as C#, Asp.net etc. The demonstration should be given using Net software for describing the various features of Dot Net Technologies

CO 1 Explain various software characteristics and analyze different software Development Models. 

CO 2 Demonstrate the contents of a SRS and apply basic software quality assurance practices to ensure that design, development meet or exceed applicable standards.

CO 3 Compare and contrast various methods for software design 

CO 4 Formulate testing strategy for software systems, employ techniques such as unit testing, Test driven development and functional testing.

CO 5 Manage software development process independently as well as in teams and make use of Various software management tools for development, maintenance and analysis.

 An image processor, also known as an image processing engineimage processing unit (IPU), or image signal processor (ISP), is a type of media processor or specialized Digital Signal Processor (DSP) used for Image Processing Image processors often employ Parallel Computing even with SIMD or MIMD technologies to increase speed and efficiency. The Digital Image processing engine can perform a range of tasks. To increase the system integration on embedded devices, often it is a system on a chip with multi core architecture.

An in-depth introduction to a systems programming/language(s) and application to problem solving.

Data mining is the process of analyzing data and summarizing  it to produce useful information. Data mining uses sophisticated data analysis tools to discover patterns and relationships in large datasets. These tools are much more than basic summaries or queries and use much more complicated algorithms.


Data Warehousing: Overview, Definition, Data Warehousing Components, Building a Data Warehouse, Warehouse Database, Mapping the Data Warehouse to a Multiprocessor Architecture, Difference between Database System and Data Warehouse, Multi Dimensional Data Model, Data Cubes, Stars, Snow Flakes, Fact Constellations, Concept


Data Warehouse Process and Technology: Warehousing Strategy, Warehouse /management and Support Processes, Warehouse Planning and Implementation, Hardware and Operating Systems for Data Warehousing, Client/Server Computing Model & Data Warehousing. Parallel Processors & Cluster Systems, Distributed DBMS implementations, Warehousing Software, Warehouse Schema Design,


Data Mining: Overview, Motivation, Definition & Functionalities, Data Processing, Form of Data Pre-processing, Data Cleaning: Missing Values, Noisy Data, (Binning, Clustering, Regression, Computer and Human inspection), Inconsistent Data, Data Integration and Transformation. Data Reduction:-Data Cube Aggregation, Dimensionality reduction, Data Compression, Numerosity Reduction, Discretization and Concept hierarchy generation, Decision Tree.


Classification: Definition, Data Generalization, Analytical Characterization, Analysis of attribute relevance, Mining Class comparisons, Statistical measures in large Databases, Statistical-Based Algorithms, Distance-Based Algorithms, Decision Tree-Based Algorithms. Clustering: Introduction, Similarity and Distance Measures, Hierarchical and Partitional Algorithms. Hierarchical Clustering- CURE and Chameleon. Density Based Methods-DBSCAN, OPTICS. Grid Based Methods- STING, CLIQUE. Model Based Method –Statistical Approach, Association rules: Introduction, Large Item sets, Basic Algorithms, Parallel and Distributed Algorithms, Neural Network approach.


Data Visualization and Overall Perspective: Aggregation, Historical information, Query Facility, OLAP function and Tools. OLAP Servers, ROLAP, MOLAP, HOLAP, Data Mining interface, Security, Backup and Recovery, Tuning Data Warehouse, Testing Data Warehouse. Warehousing applications and Recent Trends: Types of Warehousing Applications, Web Mining, Spatial Mining and Temporal Mining

Automata Theory is an exciting, theoretical branch of computer science. It established its roots during the 20th Century, as mathematicians began developing - both theoretically and literally - machines which imitated certain features of the man, completing calculations more quickly and reliably. The word automaton itself, closely related to the word "automation", denotes automatic processes carrying out the production of specific processes. Simply stated, automata theory deals with the logic of computation with respect to simple machines, referred to as automata. Through automata, computer scientists are able to understand how machines compute functions and solve problems and more importantly, what it means for a function to be defined as computable or for a question to be described as decidable.

Automatons are abstract models of machines that perform computations on an input by moving through a series of states or configurations. At each stage of the computation, a transition function determines the next configuration on the basis of a finite portion of the present configuration.

Software engineering is an engineering branch associated with development of software product using well-defined scientific principles, methods and procedures. The outcome of software engineering is an efficient and reliable software product.


Introduction: Basic Terminology, Elementary Data Organization, Algorithm, Efficiency of an Algorithm, Time and Space Complexity, Asymptotic notations: Big-Oh, Time-Space trade-off.

Abstract Data Types (ADT), Arrays: Definition, Single and Multidimensional Arrays, Representation of Arrays: Row Major Order, and Column Major Order, Application of arrays, Sparse Matrices and their representations.

Linked lists: Array Implementation and Dynamic Implementation of Singly Linked Lists, Doubly Linked List, Circularly Linked List, Operations on a Linked List. Insertion, Deletion, Traversal, Polynomial Representation and Addition, Generalized Linked List.


Stacks: Abstract Data Type, Primitive Stack operations: Push & Pop, Array and Linked Implementation of Stack in C, Application of stack: Prefix and Postfix Expressions, Evaluation of postfix expression, Recursion, Tower of Hanoi Problem, Simulating Recursion, Principles of recursion, Tail recursion, Removal of recursion Queues, Operations on Queue: Create, Add, Delete, Full and Empty, Circular queues, Array and linked implementation of queues in C, Dequeue and Priority Queue.


Trees: Basic terminology, Binary Trees, Binary Tree Representation: Array Representation and Dynamic Representation, Complete Binary Tree, Algebraic Expressions, Extended Binary Trees, Array and Linked Representation of Binary trees, Tree Traversal algorithms: Inorder, Preorder and Postorder, Threaded Binary trees, Traversing Threaded Binary trees, Huffman algorithm.


Graphs: Terminology, Sequential and linked Representations of Graphs: Adjacency Matrices, Adjacency List, Adjacency Multi list, Graph Traversal : Depth First Search and Breadth First Search, Connected Component, Spanning Trees, Minimum Cost Spanning Trees: Prims and Kruskal algorithm. Transitive Closure and Shortest Path algorithm: Warshal Algorithm and Dijikstra Algorithm, Introduction to Activity Networks.


Searching: Sequential search, Binary Search, Comparison and Analysis Internal Sorting: Insertion Sort, Selection, Bubble Sort, Quick Sort, Two Way Merge Sort, Heap Sort, Radix Sort, Practical consideration for Internal Sorting.

Search Trees: Binary Search Trees (BST), Insertion and Deletion in BST, Complexity of Search Algorithm, AVL trees, Introduction to m-way Search Trees, B Trees & B+ Trees .

Hashing: Hash Function, Collision Resolution Strategies.

Storage Management: Garbage Collection and Compaction.

CO1 Understand the concept of production system, productivity, facility and process planning in various industries.

CO2 Apply the various forecasting and project management techniques.

CO3 Apply the concept of break‐even analysis, inventory control and resource utilization  using queuing theory.

CO4 Apply principles of work study and ergonomics for design of work systems.

CO5 Formulate mathematical models for optimal solution of industrial problems using linear programming approach.

1. Introduction 

1.1 Introduction to CAD/CAM/CIM 1.2 Advantages of CAD/CAM 1.3 Product Cycle and CAD/CAM 1.4 Automation and CAD/CAM 1.5 Reasons for implementation of CAD/CAM 1.6 Steps involved in CAM operation

 2. Surface / Solid Modelling Using CAD/CAM  

2.1 Introduction to parametric and non-parametric surfaces 2.2 Creation of simple surfaces using revolved surface, ruled surface and 3D surfaces commands 2.3 Designing Software used in creation of solid models 2.4 Concept of solid models 2.5 Solid Primitives- Box, cylinder, Cone, Sphere, Wedge and torus 2.6 Construction of solid using Region, Extrude and Revolved feature 2.7 Creation of Composite solid using Boolean function e.g. Union, Subtraction and Intersection. 2.8 Sectioning of Solids and modification of solid Edges and faces using solid editing commands. Shell, Separate commands. 2.9 Performing 3D operations like 3D array, mirror and rotate 2.10 Creation of fillets and chamfers 2.11 Dimensioning of solids 2.12 2D and 3D transformation: Translation, Scaling, rotation, mirror, zooming, panning and clipping.

3. Viewing Objects in 3D Space 

3.1 Viewing the objects in different views. 3.2 Concept of SW, SE, NE and Isometric Views. 3.3 View Ports 3.4 Layout, changing from Model to Paper space Layout 3.5 Arranging the Drawing showing different views to get the hard copy 3.6 Plotting the drawing 

4. CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing)

4.1 Setting up the jobs, defining the operation, creating geometry 4.2 Specifying the tools, machining parameters and type of machining 4.3 Back plotting and verification of operation 4.4 Post processing - Converting the generated tool path in NC code depending on the system 4.5 Setting up the parameter relating to communication like transfer of programs to CNC machine 4.6 Transfer of drawing data from any CAD software to CNC MIC and generation of G-codes, M-codes. 

5. Flexible Manufacturing System 

5.1 Introduction to FMS. 5.2 Principles of flexibility, changes in manufacturing system - external changes and internal changes job flexibility, machine flexibility. 5.3 Features of FMS – production equipment, support system, material handling system, computer control system. 5.4 Advantages & limitations of FMS.

UNIT-I: Two-dimensional force systems: Basic concepts, Laws of motion, Principle of transmissibility of forces, transfer of a force to parallel position, resultant of a force system, simplest resultant of two dimensional concurrent and non-concurrent force systems, distribution of force systems, free body diagrams, equilibrium and equations of equilibrium. Friction: Friction force – Laws of sliding friction – equilibrium analysis of simple systems with sliding friction – wedge friction.

 UNIT-II: Beam: Introduction, shear force and bending moment, different equations of equilibrium, shear force and bending moment diagram for statically determined beams. Trusses: Introduction, simple truss and solution of simple truss, methods of F-joint and methods of sections. 

UNIT-III: Centroid and moment of inertia: Centroid of plane, curve, area, volume and composite bodies, moment of inertia of plane area, parallel axis theorem, perpendicular axis theorem, principle moment of inertia, mass moment of inertia of circular ring, disc, cylinder, sphere, and cone about their axis of symmetry. 

UNIT-IV: Kinematics of rigid body: Introduction, plane motion of rigid body, velocity and acceleration under translational and rotational motion, relative velocity. Kinetics of rigid body: Introduction, force, mass and acceleration, work and energy, impulse and momentum, D’Alembert’s principle and dynamic equilibrium. 

UNIT-V: Simple stress and strain: Introduction, normal and shear stresses, stress-strain diagrams for ductile and brittle material, elastic constants, one-dimensional loading of members of varying cross sections, strain energy. Pure bending of beams: Introduction, simple bending theory, stress in beams of different cross sections. Torsion: Introduction, torsion of shafts of circular cross sections, torque and twist, shear stress due to torque.

1.Recall the basic concepts of Solid Mechanics to understand the subject. 

 2.Classify various machine elements based on their functions and applications.

3. Apply the principles of solid mechanics to machine elements subjected to static and fluctuating loads.

 4. Analyze forces, bending moments, twisting moments and failure causes in various machine elements to be designed. 

 5.Design the machine elements to meet the required specification.


Tools and Techniques: 

Seven QC tools (Histogram, Check sheet, Ishikawa diagram, Pareto, Scatter diagram, Control chart, flow chart). 

Control Charts: 

Theory of control charts, measurement range, construction and analysis of R charts, process capability study, use of control charts, P-charts, and C-charts

1) Understand the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machines.

 2) Calculate the velocity and acceleration for 4‐bar and slider crank mechanism.

3) Develop cam profile for followers executing various types of motions 

4) Apply the concept of gear, gear train and flywheel for power transmission 

5) Apply dynamic force analysis for slider crank mechanism and balance rotating & reciprocating masses in machines. 

6)  Apply the concepts of gyroscope, governors in fluctuation of load and brake & dynamometer in power transmission.

In the industry, we use three methods for transmitting power from one point to another. Mechanical transmission is through shafts, gears, chains, belts, etc. Electrical transmission is through wires, transformers, etc. Fluid power is through liquids or gas in a confined space. In this chapter, we shall discuss the structure of hydraulic systems and pneumatic systems. We will also discuss the advantages and disadvantages and compare hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, and mechanical systems.

Advanced Welding provides students with opportunities to effectively perform cutting and welding applications of increasing complexity used in the advanced manufacturing industry. Proficient students will build on the knowledge and skills of the Welding Technology course while learning additional welding techniques not covered in previous courses. Specifically, students will be proficient in fundamental safety practices in welding, gas metal arc welding (GMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), and quality control methods. Upon completion of the Advanced Welding Technology course, proficient students will be prepared to complete the American Welding Society (AWS) Entry Welder qualification and certification.

1) Understand the concept of stress and strain, factor of safety, beams 

2) Understand the basic component and working of internal combustion engines, electric and hybrid vehicles, refrigerator and heat pump, airconditioning. 

3) Understand fluid properties, conservation laws, hydraulic machinery used in real life. 

4) Understand the working principle of different measuring instrument with the knowledge of accuracy, error and calibration, limit, fit, tolerance and control system. 

5) Understand concept of mechatronics with their advantages, scope and Industrial application, the different types of mechanical actuation system, the different types of hydraulic and pneumatic systems. 

6) Apply concepts of strength of material for safe design, refrigeration for calculation of COP, concepts of fluid mechanics in real life, concepts of measurements in production systems.

Draw and learn different types of wooden joints used in furniture
Draw the assembly from part details of objects
Identify and draw different types of screw threads used in various machines and assemblies as per domestic and international standards method.
To develop competency in conducting laboratory experiments for finding Discharge of water per unit time.

Basic Concept of Thermodynamics relevant course.

CO1 Describe the methods of electric heating and their advantages.

CO2 Explain the types of Electric welding and the principle of Electro-deposition, laws of electrolysis and its applications

CO3 Explain the laws of illumination and explain the principle of refrigeration and air-conditioning.

CO4 Describe the different types of Electric traction, system of track electrification and its related mechanics.

CO5 Describe the salient features of traction drive and concept of energy saving using power electronic control of AC and DC drives

  • Identify and assess the energy conservation/saving opportunities in different electric system and understand related legislations.
  • Identify and assess the energy saving behavior of utilities through implementation of DSM and EMIS.
  • Explain energy audit & management and to prepare energy audit report for different energy conservation instances.
  • Illustrate the energy audit for Mechanical Utilities.
  • Describe cost-effective measures towards improving energy efficiency and energy conservation by implementation of energy efficient technologies.

CO 1 Obtain transfer functions to predict the correct operation of open loop and closed loop control systems and identify the basic elements, structures and the characteristics of feedback control systems.

CO 2 Measure and evaluate the performance of basic control systems in time domain. Design specification for different control action.

CO 3 Analyze the stability of linear time-invariant systems in time domain using RouthHurwitz criterion and root locus technique.

CO 4 Determine the stability of linear time-invariant systems in frequency domain using Nyquist criterion and Bode plot.

CO 5 Design different type of compensators to achieve the desired performance of control System by root locus and Bode plot method. Develop and analyze the intermediate states of the system using state space analysis.

CO 1 Demonstrate the constructional details and principle of operation of three phase Induction and Synchronous Machines. 

CO 2 Analyze the performance of the three phase Induction and Synchronous Machines using the phasor diagrams and equivalent circuits. 

CO 3 Select appropriate three phase AC machine for any application and appraise its significance. 

CO 4 Start and observe the various characteristics of three phase Induction & Synchronous Machines 

CO 5 Explain the principle of operation and performance of Single-Phase Induction Motor & Universal Motor

Power system-I acquaints a students with various components of Power system. It starts from the concept of generation of electrical power and carries on through transmission and then ultimately to the consumer's end. 

This Course is designed for the first year diploma  course in Mechanical Engineering to develop essential insight to related aspects of Electrical Engineering.

Truth, Love, Peace, Non-Violence, and Righteous Conduct are the Universal Human Values. ... These are needed for the well-being of an individual, society, and humanity and ultimately Peace in the world.

This is a course designed to acquaint a student with various processes involved in drawing, designing and estimating an electrical system like a substation. It is created in accordance with BTE syllabus.

Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, locations, such as the designed positions of structural components for construction or the surface location of subsurface features

Structural mechanics, or solid mechanics, is a field of applied mechanics in which you compute deformations, stresses, and strains in solid materials. Often, the purpose is to determine the strength of a structure, such as a bridge, in order to prevent damage or accidents

Environmental engineering lab helps in the pollution prevention as , water  testing is done in the lab. As a result of these tests, various remedies can be suggested to reduce the environmental pollution. The purpose of this lab is to make the students aware of the permissible effect of water . 

Environmental Engineering makes a civil engineer to design a water supply scheme for a small or large section of community. through this subject we are able to determine the demand of water for particular area and identify suitable source to supply this demand. We were able to provide suitable treatment to water for supply of drinking water and to dispose of the waste water.  For drinking water supply suitable water quality check should be done to determine the quality of water. through this subject we were also able to give treatment to the waste water before disposing in river or ground.


The analysis of flow patterns of water surface shape, velocity, shear stress and discharge through a stream reach falls under the heading Open Channel Flow.

Open Channel Flow is defined as fluid flow with a free surface open to the atmosphere. Examples include streams, rivers and culverts not flowing full. Open channel flow assumes that the pressure at the surface is constant and the hydraulic grade line is at the surface of the fluid

Steady and unsteady flow depend on whether flow depth and velocity change with time at a point. In general if the quantity of water entering and leaving the reach does not change, then the flow is considered steady.

Steady flow in a channel can be either Uniform or Non-uniform (varied).When the average velocities in successive cross sections of a channel are the same, the flow is uniform. This occurs only when the cross section is constant. Non-uniform flow results from gradual or sudden changes in the cross sectional area.

Uniform flow and varied flow describe the changes in depth and velocity with respect to distance. If the water surface is parallel to the channel bottom flow is uniform and the water surface is at normal depth. Varied flow or non-uniform flow occurs when depth or velocity change over a distance, like in a constriction or over a riffle. Gradually varied flow occurs when the change is small, and rapidly varied flow occurs when the change is large, for example a wave,  waterfall, or the rapid transition from a stream channel into the inlet of a culvert.

Type of Flow
1. Steady and Unsteady Flow
2. Uniform Flow and Non-Uniform Flow
3. Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow
4. Critical, Sub-Critical and Super - Critical Flow

1. Steady and Unsteady Flow
In an open channel flow, if the flow parameters such as depth of flow, the velocity of flow and the rate of flow at a particular point on the fluid do not change with respect to time, then it is called as steady flow.

2. Uniform Flow and Non-Uniform Flow
The flow in the channel is said to be uniform, if, for a given length of the channel, the velocity of flow, the depth of flow remains constant.

3. Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow

If the Reynolds number Re is less than 500 or 600, then the flow is called laminar flow. If the Reynolds number is more than 2000, then the flow is said to be turbulent.

4. Critical, Sub-Critical and Super - Critical Flow

Open channel flow is Sub-critical if the Froude number is less than 1. Sub-Critical open channel flow is also defined as a tranquil or streaming flow.

An open channel flow with a Froude number equal to one is a critical flow. And super-critical flow in open channel has a Froude number greater than 1. A supercritical flow is also termed as rapid flow or torrential flow or shooting flow.


  1. To understand the behavior of a structure under dynamic loads.
  2. To understand the origin, characteristics, and zonal distribution of seismic activities.
  3. To determine and analysis of the responses of framed and masonry structures under dynamic loads.
  4. Introduction of earthquake-resistant design and provisions of IS: 1893-2016.
  5. Introduction of machine foundation and dynamic degree of freedom

Materials testing, measurement of the characteristics and behaviour of such substances as Building materials, ceramics, or plastics under various conditions. The data thus obtained can be used in specifying the suitability of materials for various applications—e.g., building or construction, machinery, or packaging

Transportation engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering which deals with the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide the safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods (transport).

Solid mechanics, also known as mechanics of solids, is the branch of continuum mechanics that studies the behavior of solid materials, especially their motion and deformation under the action of forces, temperature changes, phase changes, and other external or internal agents.


Logic simplification and combinational logic design: Binary codes, code conversion, review of Boolean algebra and Demorgans theorem, SOP & POS forms, Canonical forms, Karnaugh maps up to 6 variables, tabulation method.


PN junction diode: Introduction of semiconductor materials; Semiconductor diode: Depletion layer, V-I characteristics, ideal and practical, diode resistance


Microprocessor evolution and types, microprocessor architecture and operation of its components, addressing modes, interrupts, data transfer schemes, instruction and data flow, timer and timing diagram, Interfacing devices.


Pin diagram and internal architecture of 8085 microprocessor, registers, ALU, Control & status, interrupt and machine cycle. Instruction sets. Addressing modes. Instruction formats Instruction Classification: data transfer, arithmetic operations, logical operations, branching operations, machine control and assembler directives.

Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry deals with basic organic chemistry.

Chemistry which has many branches including Pharmaceutical Chemistry. It is a multidisciplinary intersection of Organic Chemistry and Pharmacology and aims to study drug development, absorption and related aspects of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 

Organic molecules perform key functions in nature, drug, and technology. It plays as the engine for understanding structure and reactivity. This science has found application in the production of molecules of commercial interest; in the construction of newer pharmacological active therapeutic agents derived from rational drug design, into synthesize complex natural molecules, in the finding innovative approaches to render this chemical science more efficient. The role played by organic chemist in pharmaceutical industry continues to be one of the main drivers in the drug discovery process. 

This course develops the basic concept of organic chemistry to be a Medicinal Chemist. 

Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) or old drugs into a medication to be used safely and effectively by patients. It is also called the science of dosage form design. 

To encourage and support some staff members to converse in English, beginning with the basics.